3. Only enduring innovation that can be generalized across multiple fields creates theory and knowledge. This study is organized in two parts. JIK has a broad scope to the following areas: Bibliometric analysis can also be focused on a particular journal to identify which subjects are most frequent, which authors publish most frequently in a certain journal, and which are the most cited articles (e.g., Merigó, Mas-Tur, Roig-Tierno, & Ribeiro-Soriano, 2015). However, there may be other conditions which lead to the same result, in other words, there may be multiple sufficient causes (Ragin, 2008). Our results show the differences in quantitative terms of the three variants of this methodology: fsQCA, csQCA, and mvQCA. Regarding publication years, one of the articles was published in the 1980s, 44 in the 1990s (all utilizing csQCA), and the remaining 425 articles were published after 2000 (Fig. Researchers must ensure that these conditions are relevant to the study of an outcome based on the theory and the studies conducted so far in the field of expertise. The platform provides a space for dialog and fruitful confrontations between qualitative (case-oriented) and quantitative (based on variables) methods, and a stage for the integration of these methods to progress in the development and application of approaches, methods, and original techniques, all aimed at developing a comprehensive approach to systematic comparative analysis of sets. Stevenson 2013. 471-487. El estudio está organizado en dos partes: La primera parte consiste en un análisis general del uso del Análisis Cualitativo Comparado (QCA); en la segunda parte se presenta un análisis bibliométrico del uso del QCA que examina las especificidades de las publicaciones científicas que aplican esta metodología. 2847-2867. These include authors or most frequently cited authors, scientific journals with the highest number of publications in the focal subject area, and the evolution of the subject area in terms of number of publications. Spain is among the largest producers of organic olive in the world. Rubinson (2013) links the problems of contradictions and false positives and proposes the use of the Kirq software, which avoids reductions of the truth table when it identifies contradictions. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) para 18,11 €. For example: a study where countries are the unit of analysis is limited in that are only a limited number of countries in the world (less than 200), less than necessary for some (probabilistic) statistical techniques. The Outcomes of Homeless Mobilization: The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation, and Framing. Invernizzi et al. Comparative politics accounts for the largest number, followed by business and economics, and sociology. The two most common variants of QCA are presented below: fuzzy-set (fsQCA) and crisp-set (csQCA). Basurto 2013), Tourism (e.g. During this period, the method was being progressively refined. • QCA is a comparative method that is mainly used in the social sciences for the assessment of cause-effect relations (i.e. Only 21% were published in non SCI journals. (1995), Self-organizing Processes in Top Management Teams: A Boolean Comparative Approach. CsQCA uses categorical conditions based on a dichotomy, assigning the values 1 – full membership, or 0 – full non-membership, to each condition. Globalization in innovation and knowledge. In response to the limitations of the method to assign values to gradual conditions occurring in the social reality such as quality, satisfaction, etc., fsQCA was developed (Ragin, 2000, 2008). causation). Aalto University School of Economics, (2012). In sum, JIK is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to advancing theoretical and practical innovations and knowledge in a range of fields, including Economics, Business and Management, Engineering, Science, and Education. 365-381. This paper contributes to the dialogue on methodological options by exploring the utility of applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis using fuzzy sets (fsQCA) for understanding complex causality and the conditions that support resilience in humanitarian contexts. This paper focuses on the achievement of one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Social Economy enterprises. This allows for the transformation of qualitative information to quantitative values while maintaining original distinctions. En español. According to Schwellnus (2013), the proportional reduction in consistency (PRI) is the best option for fsQCA since it was developed by Ragin and has been applied to fsQCA. 1). The study is structured as follows: ‘Qualitative Comparative Analysis’ section reviews the evolution of QCA; ‘Bibliometrics’ section provides a bibliometric analysis of the use, application, main authors, and impact of QCA; ‘Conclusions’ section discusses the main conclusions and suggests future directions of research on QCA. As this is a logical (deterministic) and not a statistical (probabilistic) technique, with "crisp-set" QCA (csQCA), the original application of QCA, variables can only have two values, which is problematic as the researcher has to determine the values of each variable. This method is effectively and parsimoniously able to address the challenges described in the previous paragraph, and offers results which complement and enrich the state of the art. For each prime implicant that QCA outputs via its logical inference reduction process, the "coverage" — percentage out of all observations that exhibit that implication or inference — and the "consistency" — the percentage of observations conforming to that combination of variables having that particular value of the dependent variable or outcome — are calculated and reported, and can be used as indicators of the strength of such an explorative probabilistic inference. Easy to follow. 14. 190-212. Social science is aimed at helping us understand the reality surrounding us so that we can improve it. The small N problem arises when the number of units of analysis (e.g. To determine the number of citations, we exploited the Google Scholar (GS) database. A Hero for the Aged: The Townsend Movement, the Political Mediation Model, and United-States Old-Age Policy, 1934–1950. The data analytic strategy used here is known as qualitative comparative analysis, or QCA. Journal of Business Research, 68 (2015), pp. The basis of QCA's configurational approach is the analysis of sufficient and necessary causes to produce an outcome. Fuzzy set QCA aims to handle variables, such as GDP per capita, where the number of categories, decimal values of monetary units, becomes too large to use mvQCA, or in cases were uncertainty or ambiguity or measurement error in the classification of a case needs to be acknowledged.[10]. Sociological Methods & Research, 41 (2012), pp. Knowledge patterns in relation to innovation. 393-420. Quality & Quantity, 47 (2013), pp. The analysis begins with listing and counting all the combinations of variables observed in the data set, followed by applying the rules of logical inference to determine which descriptive inferences or implications the data supports. 3). 2018), Entrepreneurship (e.g. Set-theoretic methods for the social sciences: A guide to qualitative comparative analysis. Different fields of study have adopted a systems approach (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1972), which has become one of the predominant paradigms. Particularly relevant are the methods of agreement and difference. The Organizational and Social Foundations of Worker Resistance. 2 shows that the number of published articles employing QCA as the method of analysis was relatively low between 1987 and 2001. "Does Technology have an Impact on Learning? A condition is necessary if it is present in all instances of the outcome. Opportunities and challenges for integrating large-N QCA and econometric analysis. QCA is a method that bridges qualitative and quantitative analysis: Most aspects of QCA require familiarity with cases, which in turn demands in-depth knowledge. To achieve this, we provide a bibliometric analysis of the research contributions to date. Knowledge and innovation in organizations and their behaviors. The Journal of Innovation and Knowledge (JIK) focuses on how we gain knowledge through innovation and how knowledge encourages new forms of innovation. For example, it could be applied to regression methods and fsQCA. By counting the number of observations that exist for each of the 60 unique combination of variables, QCA can determine which descriptive inferences or implications are empirically supported by a data set. Furthermore, fsQCA allows the combination of various statements in a single instrument. Citations depending on the field of study and average citations. Basurto, X. The most frequently cited authors are Cress and Snow, with 511 citations, followed by Ebbinghaus and Visser (377), and Fiss (324). As is always the case in QCA, the number of cases or configurations is equal to 2k, where K is the number of conditions (variables) included in the study. The use of bibliometrics with a method as a subject of study is novel and makes a contribution to the literature. Some of the disadvantages of Mill's (1843) principles are: (1) The complexity involved in identifying a common difference or circumstance, and (2) that this difference should be the determining cause of the phenomenon. Thus, if two expressions that are identical in all but one condition lead to the same result then that condition is irrelevant, since its presence or absence in no way affects the result. According to the method of difference, if there is a circumstance when the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and another when it does not occur, this difference is the cause or effect or a necessary part of the phenomenon. The difference in the number of publications in the next ranked journals is minimal. Computers & Education 69 (0): 148-58. In statistics, qualitative comparative analysis is a data analysis technique for determining which logical conclusions a data set supports. Great videos. Puede cambiar la configuración u obtener más información, To improve our services and products, we use "cookies" (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. CsQCA is the first variant of QCA designed by Charles Ragin and Kriss Drass in 1987. [5], Statistical methodologists have argued that QCA's strong assumptions render its findings both fragile and prone to type I error. QCA uses Boolean logic instead of the traditional correlation methods to establish causal conditions strongly related to a particular outcome (Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987, 2000, 2008). Social Policy and Society 12 (1):61-72. Alongside organization of this international resource platform, the main group in COMPASSS arranges seminars, manages a data file, publishes research, and participates in the development of software for the application of this methodology. [8] Braumoeller also offers a formal test of the null hypothesis and demonstrates that even very convincing QCA findings may be the result of chance.[9]. Regarding the quality and impact of the journals in which the articles were published, of the 469 articles analyzed, approximately 80% were published in journals indexed in the Social Science Citation Index of the Journal Citation Index (JCR). CsQCA was introduced in 1987 when there was no similar method in existence. The concept of bibliometrics, or bibliometric analysis, was introduced by Alan Pritchard in 1969. Information systems in knowledge and innovation. An overview of qualitative comparative analysis: A bibliometric analysis, Una visión general del analísi comparativo y cualitativo: Un análisis bibliométrico. The original version of fsQCA described in Fuzzy Set Social Science (Ragin, 2000) was not applied as a version of QCA. Por favor, desplácese hacia abajo y haga clic para ver cada uno de ellos. Knowledge and innovation transfer. Net effects analysis versus configurational analysis: An empirical demonstration. The fsQCA variant, unlike the csQCA, was not designed originally to detect and analyze contradictions in the causal configurations. Not all innovation leads to knowledge. Based on this input, the software automatically generates three types of solutions: complex (called conservative solution by Schneider & Wagemann, 2012 , p. 162), intermediate, and parsimonious. In addition, the evolution of two methods used for the same purpose could be compared and their application discussed to forecast future trends. Amenta, Edwin, Neal Caren, and Sheera Joy Olasky. The problem of irrelevant conditions leads to consideration of false positives. Individual and Institutional Employment Patterns: Two Approaches to Understanding Control of Voluntary and Involuntary Job Shifts among Germans and Foreigners from 1991 to 1996. Regional Patterns and Historical Trends in Tropical Deforestation, 1976–1990: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis. de Bakker, P. Groenewegen, F. Den Hond. According to data provided by Compasss (compasss.org) which compiles all published work using QCA method variants, the number of studies using fuzzy sets has grown exponentially with respect to the previous versions (crisp-set and multi-value QCA). However, social science, in an attempt to emulate its seniors, the pure sciences, has adopted increasingly sophisticated and powerful methodologies and algorithms. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(2), 165-166. The technique originally focused on small samples but further development has allowed its application to broader contexts. Each configuration of causal conditions can be represented as a corner in a graphic space. 100% Anonymity. 168-198. 190-212. Age for Leisure? Global Environmental Change 23 (3): 573-87. A bibliometric analysis of 30 years of research and theory on corporate social responsibility and corporate social performance. 1 shows the huge differences in the number of articles using QCA in different areas of study. This will help you prepare well for the course and attend it properly. Despite being originally designed for the analysis of countries, fsQCA has been used in numerous fields other than social science although its use in the latter is more frequent as discussed in section 3. However, the analysis of topics or subject areas is not the only goal of bibliometric analysis. Nuestros resultados muestran las diferencias en términos cuantitativos de las tres versiones de la metodología: fsQCA, csQCA y mvQCA. In areas such as education and legal studies, qualitative methods are common since these disciplines involve human characteristics in contrast to economics and sociology where statistical data weigh more heavily in the description of reality. We conduct a general analysis of the use of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), and a bibliometric study of the use of QCA to analyze the specificities of the research publications that apply this methodology. Set-theoretic methods for the social sciences: A guide to qualitative comparative analysis. It can be seen that the fields registering the highest ratios are sociology, environmental science, and management and organization. In other words, Mill's canons do not allow for multicausality of the phenomenon. 9. This allocation is known as set calibration. F.G.A. 4. Qualitative Comparative Analysis And Case Study Methods, natural gas technician cover letter, consent form research proposal, personal essay slp graudate school format. QCA was developed from Mill's (1843) canons, to establish causal relationships through systematic comparisons. According to the method of agreement, if two or more examples of the phenomenon under investigation have just one circumstance in common, the circumstance common to these examples is the cause or effect of the given phenomenon (Mill, 1843). Kask and Linton (2013) Business mating: when startups get it right. Fig. For example, by setting a threshold of 0.8, a condition with 0.75 consistency will be dismissed, and the other conditions will be understood as sufficient to cause the result. Simon Hug argues that deterministic hypotheses and error-free measures are exceedingly rare in social science and uses Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate the fragility of QCA results if either assumption is violated. The Programmatic Emergence of the Social Security State. Global knowledge management research: A bibliometric analysis. Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) from Erasmus University Rotterdam. Although historically QCA has been used for small- or medium-N, Emmenegger, Schraff, and Walter (2014) maintain that the method is applicable to research using survey data. Citations depending on the field of study and average citations. 10. aspects of an intervention and the wider context) to an outcome of interest. Journal of International Business Studies, A Chemistry of Organization: Combinatory Analysis and Design. The technique of listing case types by potential variable combinations assists with case selection by making investigators aware of all possible case types that would need to be investigated, at a minimum, if they exist, in order to test a certain hypothesis or to derive new inferences from an existing data set. • QCA is relevant for researchers who normally work with qualitative methods and are looking for a more systematic way of comparing and assessing cases. However, the study of bibliography in a particular field dates back to the 19th century (Osareh, 1996). Political Mediation and the Impact of the Pension Movement on U.S. Old-Age Policy, De Facto Independence after Delegation: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis. Você pode alterar a configuração ou obter mais informações, Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000; Ragin, 2008; Vis, 2012; Woodside, 2016, Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000; Woodside & Zhang, 2012, Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987, 2000, 2008, Ragin, 1987, 2000; Woodside & Zhang, 2012, Merigó, Mas-Tur, Roig-Tierno, & Ribeiro-Soriano, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12520, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-011-9241-5. To avoid the disadvantages of such samples, the authors recommend analyzing the strength of the results and propose a technique to achieve this. Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, (1843). The technique originally focused on small samples but further development has allowed its application to broader contexts. Frequency thresholds can be set to determine the conditions that are part of the research and those that are not, according to their relevance, as we discuss later. Every row in the table represents a configuration of the conditions that produce a particular outcome. University of Chicago Press, (2008), pp. Our writers will offer prices for your order. However, the irrelevant conditions in fsQCA for the calculation of consistency and coverage can take values different from 0 but less than 0.5. In real-life complex societal processes, QCA enables the identification of multiple sets of conditions that are consistently associated with a particular output value in order to explore for causal predictors. 5. These data reveal greater interest in the fsQCA method from researchers in these fields of knowledge. What differs is the length of time since each method was introduced. 447-465. The objective is to make the platform a place of exchange among researchers from a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and psychology, among others. Academy of Management Review, 32 (2007), pp. We exploit information from the Compasss database. Eliminating the influence of irrelevant cases on the consistency and coverage of necessary and sufficient conditions in fuzzy-set QCA. JIK publishes state-of-the-art research on emerging topics in the world of innovation and knowledge and appeals to a broad readership. Consistency refers to the percentage of causal configurations of similar composition which result in the same outcome value. Romme, A.G.L. Thus, this changes the result. 6. But as this variable is essentially a continuous variable, the division will always be arbitrary. FsQCA was introduced in 2001 as an alternative to csQCA with fewer limitations. 522-534. A bibliometric analysis of international scientific cooperation of the European Union (1985–1995). Holding Governments Accountable in European Affairs: Explaining Cross-National Variation. In future research, bibliometric analysis could be applied to other methods in development to identify their evolution. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a means of analysing the causal contribution of different conditions (e.g. For instance, if there were four categorical variables of interest, {A,B,C,D}, and A and B were dichotomous (could take on two values), C could take on five values, and D could take on three, then there would be 60 possible types of observations determined by the possible combinations of variables, not all of which would necessarily occur in real life. QCA (Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000) is an analytic technique which combines quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Ragin (1987) advises against this measure due to the consequences for the drawing of conclusions, which question its validity. One (or the only) characteristic of csQCA which fsQCA does not exceed is that it detects contradictions, which can be considered a separate line of research. Institutions and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis. Following Ragin (2008), fsQCA assigns membership values to conditions on a scale from 0.0 (non-membership) to 1.0 (full membership), with 0.5 as the cross-over point or point of maximum ambiguity. SummarizeBot is qualitative data analysis software, and includes features such as annotations, media analytics, Multi-Language, qualitative comparative analysis, quantitative content analysis, sentiment analysis, statistical analysis, and text analytics. Fig. ANALYSIS (QCA) Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a methodology that enables the analysis of multiple cases in complex situations. Posts about Qualitative comparative analysis written by etdlist. Hicks, Alexander, Joya Misra, and Tang Nah Ng. The reality surrounding us so that we can improve it impossibility of generalizing the to! Low, it should be considered a special case of Multi-value QCA is designed for use with an intermediate of... 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