The state was declared India's second open-defecation-free state in 2016. To address this, a workshop on ‘Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in Himachal Pradesh’ was held in 2002 and the conference was attended by forty experts from diverse disciplines. "snow-laden province") is a state in the northern part of India. [15] Some, including the rulers of Chamba, Bilaspur, Bhagal and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt. [110] The colour of the Himachali caps has been an indicator of political loyalties in the hill state for a long period of time with Congress party leaders like Virbhadra Singh donning caps with green band and the rival BJP leader Prem Kumar Dhumal wearing a cap with maroon band. [128], The standard of education in the state has reached a considerably high level as compared to other states in India[127] with several reputed educational institutes for higher studies. Himachal Pradesh Forest Minister Rakesh Pathania had informed that 2,403 birds have died so far. [6] Sanskrit is the additional official language of the state,[7] though it is largely restricted to educational and symbolic use. It is spread over 21,495 sq mi (55,670 km2), and is bordered by Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east. [120] In an effort to raise the number of teaching staff at primary schools they appointed over 1000 teacher aids through the Vidya Upasak Yojna in 2001. [11] According to a survey of CMS – India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India's least corrupt state. Tell us what you think of this blog. There is great diversification in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to variation in elevation (450-6500mtrs). Winter lasts from late November till mid-March. [117] Lentils (Dāl), rice (Chāwal or Bhāț), vegetables (Sabzī) and chapati (wheat flatbread) form the staple food of the local population. The states of Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule. Used to protect the head from the intense cold of the Himalayas, this cap is woven and stitched as a squat cylinder and is part of the signature look of the … The state-owned Himachal Road Transport Corporation with a fleet of over 3,100,[85] operates bus services connecting important cities and towns with villages within the state and also on various interstate routes. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India. The climate varies from hot and subhumid tropical in the southern tracts to, with more elevation, cold, alpine, and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges. [15] Some areas of Punjab State— namely Simla, Kangra, Kullu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh Tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara, Amb and Una Janungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh Kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una Tehsil of Hoshiarpur District, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District—were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on enactment by Parliament of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. The Delhi government’s animal husbandry department said around 15 crows were found dead on the premises of the Red Fort last week after which their samples were sent to Northern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory in Jalandhar, Punjab. Western Pahari languages also known as Himachali languages are widely spoken in the state. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. [66] Himachal's hydro-electric power production is however yet to be fully utilised. It is also to keep them warm and protect the head from the cold breeze and chilly climate. [101] Sikhs mostly live in towns and cities and constitute 1.16% of the state population. [15], Himachal is in the western Himalayas. Kala, C.P. [60] The apple cultivation constitute 49 per cent of the total area under fruit crops and 85% of total fruit production in the state with an estimated economy of ₹3500 crore. [20] The state's winter capital, Dharamsala receives very heavy rainfall, while areas like Lahaul and Spiti are cold and almost rainless. [15] They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. [54] One of the Indian government's key initiatives to tackle unemployment is the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). [61][62] In 2011–12, the total area under apple cultivation was 104,000 hectares, increased from 90,347 hectares in 2000–01. [127], The state government has played an instrumental role in the rise of literacy in the state by spending a significant proportion of the state's GDP on education. Kerala weather and climate remain pleasant throughout the year and one does not experience extremes in weather conditions as in the plains. [83] Hamirpur district has the highest road density in the country. [101] Himachal Pradesh has the highest proportion of Hindu population among all the states and union territories in India. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate a number of times. The total route length of the operational railway network in the state is 296.26 kilometres (184.09 mi). He added that studies which are being carried out by the Centre for mapping of seasonal snow cover in terms of its spatial distribution covers the different river basins in Himachal Pradesh during the winter season from October to May and is an important input in order to understand the contribution of snow in different catchments to sustain the hydrology of the river basins. Locally, it is called the Land of the Gods because of some popular Hindu temples of Hindu deities. Gajendra Singh was the son of former home minister and Congress stalwart from Rajasthan, Gulab Singh Shaktawat. In 1966, hilly areas of neighboring Punjab state were merged into Himachal and it was ultimately granted full statehood in 1971. Only the male has such beauty, the female is a dull brown companion. This pheasant can be spotted in the higher reaches of Shimla, Kinnaur, Kangra, Kullu and Chamba mountains. [47][48] The state government's advance estimates for fiscal 2017–18 stated the total GDP and per capita income as ₹1.359 trillion and ₹158,462, respectively. The state witnessed a marginal decrease of about 0.72% in its snow cover from October 2019 to May this year in comparison to 2018-19 i.e total average area under snow has reduced from 20210.23Km2 to 20064.00Km2. The temperature varies from 0 … The state animal is the Snow leopard, which is even rarer to find than the jujurana. [41] The districts are further divided into 69 subdivisions, 78 blocks and 145 Tehsils. Owing to its diversity in geographical features, the climatic condition in Kerala … Thus by using satellite data of different resolutions, it has now become possible to map the geographical extent of the area covered under snow during the winter season. [51], The total GDP for 2005-06 was estimated at ₹254 billion as against ₹230 billion in the year 2004–05, showing an increase of 10.5%. Avian flu cases have been confirmed in four states, including Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala with hundreds of migratory birds and crows being found dead. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra. (2002) Medicinal Plants of Indian Trans-Himalaya: Focus on Tibetan Use of Medicinal Resources. Leaders of all 40 farm unions which are taking part in the protest will meet three cabinet ministers of the government for the 10th round of talks this afternoon in an effort to end the impasse. [40], The era of planning in Himachal Pradesh started in 1951 along with the rest of India with the implementation of the first five-year plan. [19] The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej, and the Yamuna. [75] Buddhist monasteries, trekking to tribal villages and mountain biking are other local possibilities. [70] The state is also referred to as "Dev Bhoomi" (literally meaning Abode of Gods) due to its mention as such in ancient Hindu texts and occurrence of a large number of historical temples in the state.[71]. Census of India (2011), the states and union territories of India, Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, List of institutions of higher education in Himachal Pradesh, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technologies, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, Indian Institute of Information Technology Una, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalya Palampur, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College, "Telangana's 'people's leader' Bandaru Dattatreya appointed Himachal Pradesh Governor", "Justice Lingappa Narayana Swamy Takes Oath As Himachal Chief Justice", "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)", "Bill to make Sanskrit second official language of HP passed", "Census 2011, Chapter 6 (State of Literacy), p.14", "Himachal becomes India's second 'Open Defecation Free' state, to get Rs 9,000 cr funding from World Bank", "HP least corrupt state: CMS-India study", "Corruption on decline in India; Karnataka ranked most corrupt, Himachal Pradesh least: Survey", "Himachal initiates rs 1134 crore horticultural developmental project", "In Himachal Pradesh Striking gold with marigold", "Wild Life: Himachal Pradesh Forest Department", "Himachal to have new State Animal, Bird and Flower – Hill Post", "Who is Jairam Thakur – front runner for Himachal Pradesh CM post after Prem Kumar Dhumal's shock defeat", "DIVISIONAL COMMISSIONER, Kangra Division, Dharamshala", "MAP (Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies of HP)", "Economic Survey projects Himachal Pradesh's growth rate at 7.7% - Times of India", "Growth rate for Himachal Pradesh estimated at 6.8%", "Final English Budget Speech for 2018–19", "An Overview of Planning in Himachal Pradesh", "Himachal Pradesh: A Profile, Economic Development", "Why Kerala is like Maldives and Uttar Pradesh, Pakistan", "Crop Diversification in Himachal Pradesh: Patterns, Determinants and Challenges", "State specific files, Chapter 57: Himachal Pradesh", "$37 Million Additional Financing for Himachal Pradesh Mid Himalayan Watershed Development Project, India – 18000 Farmer Households to Benefit", "Apple season begins in Himachal Pradesh", "Himachal Pradesh headed for good Apple crop this year", "Production of Apple Increases by About 36% in 2015–16", "Independence Day-2013 Speech by Virbhadra Singh", "While others sweat, Himachal struggles to sell its surplus power", "Himachal's mega 100 Mw hydro power project to be commissioned this month", "Historic pilgrimage trek to Himalayas concludes, five dead", "Himachal Pradesh: Dev Bhoomi, The Land of Gods", "Ice-skating rink completes 100 sessions again", "Top 15 Places To Visit in Himachal Pradesh", "Paragliding World Cup 2015 will be held in India: All you need to know", "India hosts the first ever Paragliding World Cup", "Airfares to Dharamsala skyrocket this weekend", "Complete Una-Hamirpur rail line survey within 6 months: Anurag", "Kangra's narrow gauge rail corridor is all set to get heritage status", "Statewise Length of Railway Lines and Survey For New Railway Lines", "Work on Chandigarh-Baddi railway line to start soon", "With eye on China, India begins work on Himachal-Ladakh rail link", "White Paper on purchase of fleet of buses", "Himachal private bus operators seek hike in fare", Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901, "Census 2011:Population size and Decadal change", "STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF HIMACHAL PRADESH 2015–16: I – AREA AND POPULATION- Table 1.17 and 1.18, XIII – EDUCATION- Table 13.07", "Himachal Pradesh Youth status report: Sex ratio up but total fertility rate declining", "Indian Districts by Population, Sex Ratio, Literacy 2011 Census", "Highlights of Himachal Pradesh HDR (2002)", C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Himachal Pradesh, "Population by religion community – 2011", "Himachal Pradesh Districts – Religion 2011", "CHAPTER 2: SCHEDULED AREAS AND SCHEDULED TRIBES OF HIMACHAL PRADESH", "Traditional handicrafts and handloom of Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh", "Himcrafts: H.P State Handicrafts and Handloom Corp. Ltd, Shimla", "The Himachali cap: Culture, legacy and heritage", "Cap likely on 'cap politics' in Himachal Pradesh", "PM Modi's cap in Israel takes political hue in Himachal", "Prem Kumar Dhumal, Virbhadra Singh: Tale of two captains, their wins and losses", "Fair Festivals and Events of Himachal Pradesh", "Local and Traditional Himachali Foods and Dishes", "Himachal Pradesh Development Report: Chapter 7 Education", "In Himachal, where 90 per cent people live in villages, female literacy rate touches 80 per cent", "Factual source on Education in Himachal", "Educational Profile of Himachal Pradesh", "Himachal Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan & Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan", "Himachal Pradesh Population Census data 2011", Statistics and Data, Planning Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh, The Official Tourism Site of Himachal Pradesh, India, Autonomous administrative divisions of India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Himachal_Pradesh&oldid=1001421835, States and territories established in 1971, Punjabi-speaking countries and territories, Articles with failed verification from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 23,000.43 MW in five rivers basins i.e. [18], The drainage system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and glaciers. Traditional and Vernacular buildings in contrast to Modern buildings constructed in 20th century are more climate-receptive; the climate-responsive architecture originates in the pre-industrial era before the introduction of air-conditioning and electric lighting. The average temperature in the summer months vary from 22 degrees to 37 degree Celsius. [67], Tourism in Himachal Pradesh is a major contributor to the state's economy and growth. The Kingdom of Gorkha conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal in 1768. The state has road network of 28,208 kilometres (17,528 mi),[83] including eight National Highways (NH) that constitute 1,234 kilometres (767 mi) and 19 State Highways with a total length of 1,625 kilometres (1,010 mi). [15], During the Vedic period, several small republics known as Janapada existed which were later conquered by the Gupta Empire. Rapidly changing climate is degrading the snow cover of Himalayan rivers originating in Himachal Pradesh, according to a recent study by the State Centre on Climate Change under the aegis of the Himachal Council for Science Technology and Environment (HIMCOSTE). State Centre on Climate Change has successfully utilised the applications of space technology in carrying out studies related to Cyrosphere comprising the snow and glaciers in Himachal in collaboration with Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad. [114], Apart from national fairs and festivals, there are regional fairs and festivals, including the temple fairs in nearly every region that are of great significance to Himachal Pradesh. It came into being as a centrally administered territory on 15 April 1948 from the integration of thirty erstwhile princely states.[36]. In the southern low tracks between an altitude of 400-900 it is hot sub humid type, between 900-1800m altitude warm & temperate, between 900-2400m cool & temperate, cold alpine & glacial above 2400- 4800m altitude. Muslims are mainly concentrated in Sirmaur, Chamba, Una and Solan districts where they form 2.53-6.27% of the population. Most of the major rivers like Chenab, Beas, Parvati, Baspa, Spiti, Ravi, Satluj, and its perennial tributaries originating from the Himalayas depend upon the seasonal snow cover for their discharge dependability. A special Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) court on Tuesday rejected an application filed by Indrani Mukerjea, seeking exemption from wearing the green saree – a uniform for women prisoners across Maharashtra, When 22-year-old Sandhya Sonawane decided to contest the gram panchayat polls from Naigaon, Ahmednagar, many ridiculed her for the decision, To attract more parents to civic body schools, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation’s (BMC) education department has proposed to start 10 Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) schools from the academic year 2021-22, The Mumbai crime branch has busted an inter-state racket by arresting seven people, who allegedly purchase high-end cars after getting them financed by reputed private banks using forged documents, Both the Shiv Sena and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) on Tuesday claimed they had won the highest number of gram panchayats (village council), as results to the elections to 12,711 gram panchayats that went to polls on January 15 were announced. Based on summer month analysis, in Chenab basin (65% of the total basin area) and Satluj basin (50% of the total basin area) will contribute as snowmelt in the river system after May onwards in comparison to Beas basin (45%) and the Ravi basin (26%) of the total basin area this year. [126] The Hamirpur District in particular stands out for high literacy rates across all metrics of measurement. [64] The state has an abundance of hydropower resources because of the presence of various perennial rivers. There is great diversification in the climatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh due to variation in elevation. Prior to India's independence from the British, Himachal comprised the hilly regions of Punjab Province of British India. [5][88] The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes account for 25.19 per cent and 5.71 per cent of the population, respectively. [49] As of 2018, Himachal is the 22nd-largest state economy in India with ₹1.52 lakh crore (US$21 billion) in gross domestic product and has the 13th-highest per capita income (₹160,000 (US$2,200)) among the states and union territories of India. [15] Gradually, the Kingdom of Nepal annexed Sirmour and Shimla. Broadly, Himachal experiences three seasons: summer, winter, and rainy season. Himachal hosted the first Paragliding World Cup in India from 24 to 31 October in 2015. Timur and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory on 1 November 1956. Some of the most commonly spoken individual languages are Kangri, Mandeali, Kulvi, Chambeali, Bharmauri and Kinnauri. Additional Indo-Aryan languages spoken include Punjabi (native to 4.4% of the population), Nepali (1.3%), Chinali, Lahul Lohar, and others. Rapidly changing climate is degrading the snow cover of Himalayan rivers originating in Himachal Pradesh, according to a recent study by the State Centre on Climate … The weather is humid in the plains and coastal areas. Kalpa, a typical town in Himachal Pradesh. These were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947 (later renamed as the Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1947 vide A.O. The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. [15] Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 11th century. [130] CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalya Palampur is one of the most renowned hill agriculture institutes in the world. Bilaspur, Kangra, Mandi, Sirmour, and Una districts experience sub tropical monsoon, … [35], The Legislative Assembly of Himachal Pradesh has no pre-constitution history. Maharashtra home minister Anil Deshmukh said the state government was taking legal opinion on the possibility of action against Arnab Goswami under the 1923 Official Secrets because of the WhatsApp conversation related to national security. The crude death rate was 6.9 in 2010. The state is one of the most literate states of India with a literacy rate of 83.78% as of 2011. Himachal is also known for its adventure tourism activities like ice skating in Shimla, paragliding in Bir Billing and Solang valley, rafting in Kullu, skiing in Manali, boating in Bilaspur and trekking, horse riding and fishing in different parts in the state. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846,[15] during the First Anglo-Sikh War. During the first six five-year plans, most of the development expenditure in education sector was utilised in quantitative expansion, but after the seventh five-year-plan the state government switched emphasis on qualitative improvement and modernisation of education. Treatment of injured at the nearby hospital is being monitored," police said. At 6,816 m, Reo Purgyil is the highest mountain peak in the state of Himachal Pradesh. [102], Other religions that form a small percentage are Islam, Sikhism and Buddhism. Biological Conservation, 93 (3): 371-379. [107][108][109] Of late, the demand for these handicrafts has increased within and outside the country. [citation needed], Most of the population, however, speak natively one or another of the Western Pahari languages (locally also known as Himachali or just Pahari), a subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages that includes Bhattiyali, Bilaspuri, Chambeali, Churahi, Gaddi, Hinduri, Kangri, Kullu, Mahasu Pahari, Mandeali, Pahari Kinnauri, Pangwali, and Sirmauri. Inaugurated in 2006 at Sundernagar of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive, &. And dance also reflects the cultural identity of the Dhauladhar Range ( 161 mi.... Also helps in controlling the accumulation and ablation patterns of the most literate states of India to June rainy! Special office bearers such as the topography 113 ] local music and also! See table to right ) to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the region source of income Employment! In 34 sessions across the state pre-constitution history local festivals and other occasions. 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