He also gave him, toform part of the detachment, the three hundred of the picked corps[10]under his own command at the head of the square. [4] I.e. ITEM TILE download. Rule he soughtafter only as a stepping-stone to larger spoils. At that time,it was to win a throne for Cyrus that you showed your bravery; to-day,when the struggle is for your own salvation, what is more natural thanthat you should show yourselves braver and more zealous still. The first said no; andin spite of all sorts of terrors applied to extract a betteranswer--"no," he persisted. As a commander he had the artof leading gentlemen, but he failed to inspire adequately eitherrespect for himself or fear in the soldiers under him. Havingfinally reached a point at which the Tigris was absolutelyimpassable owing to its depth and breadth, while there was nopassage along the bank itself, and the Carduchian hills hungsheer over the river, the generals took the resolution abovementioned of forcing a passage through the mountains. I think I can dealwith them all; they shall cease from being a constant distubance toyour peace and prosperity. The first of these, Clearchus, was a thorough soldier,and a true lover of fighting. At this, the Asiatics stood discussing with one another for a longwhile, and then they went away without vouchsafing a word. But without you, all our way is through darkness; forwe known nothing concerning it, every river will be an obstacle, eachmultitude a terror; but, worst terror of all, the vast wilderness, sofull of endless perplexity. Will he not go all lengths so that, by inflicting on us theextreme of ignominy and torture, he may rouse in the rest of mankind aterror of ever marching against him any more? Here then they passed the night, but at the first glimpse of dawn theymarched stealthily and in battle order against the enemy. As a rule, when the word was so passedup, Cheirisophus slackened; but sometimes instead of slackening,Cheirisophus quickened, sending down a counter-order to the rear tofollow on quickly. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. Ariaeus answered:"There is no doubt but that Clearchus has been known for some time toharbour designs agaisnt Tissaphernes and Orontas, and all of us whoside with them." "At this very moment you would confer a great boon on the army, if youmade it your business to appoint generals and officers to fill theplaces of those that are lost. That Xenophon hesitated to do, for Tissaphernesand his whole army were coming up and were well within sight.Galloping up to the front himself, he asked: "Why do you summon me? Proxenus eagerly pressed him tostop--a request which Cyrus with like ardour supported, adding that assoon as the campaign was over he would send him home. IBZ Online Internationale Bibliographie der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenliteratur [International bibliography of periodical literature in the humanities and social sciences] He was in the bloom of youth when he procuredfrom Aristippus the command of his mercenaries; he had not yet lostthat bloom when he became exceedingly intimate with Ariaeus, abarbarian, whose liking for fair young men was the explanation; andbefore he had grown a beard himself, he had contracted a similarrelationship with a bearded favourite named Tharypas. At the point where they had themselves been last night, up on themountains, they could see the Carduchians collected in large numbersand under arms. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. Thereupon he refused further obedience,and went off with sails set for the Hellespont. At this signal the party on thesummit were to attack the enemy in occupation of the visible pass,while the generals with the main body would bring up their succours;making their way up with what speed they might. The enemy, seeing Cheirisophus's detachment easilycrossing the stream, and Xenophon's men racing back, were seized withthe fear of being intercepted, and fled at full speed in the directionof the road which emerges from the stream. When theywere close, he halted some of his regiments at the rear and wheeledothers into position on either flank, but hesitated to attack, havingno mind apparently to run any risks, and contenting himself with anorder to his slingers to sling and his archers to shoot. "Good," replied Clearchus. [1] The Greater Zab, which flows into the Tigris near a town now called Senn, with which most travellers identify Caenae. Withhim you have murdered the very men to whom you gave your solemn wordand oath, and to the rest of us turned traitors; and, having so done, 39you join hand with our enemies to come against us." Having done that, they proceeded to make their breakfasts.While they were breakfasting, Mithridates came with about thirtyhorsemen, and summoning the generals within earshot, he thus addressedthem: "Men of Hellas, I have been faithful to Cyrus, as you know well,and to-day I am your well-wisher; indeed, I am here spending my daysin great fear: if then I could see any salutory course in prospect, Ishould be disposed to join you with all my retainers. That is the question. I am sure that theking would be thrice glad to give the Mysians as many guides as theylike, or as many hostages as they care to demand, in return for a safeconduct out of his country; he would make carriage roads for them, andif they preferred to take their departure in coaches and four, hewould not say them nay. The arrows pierced through shieldand cuirass, and the Hellenes, when they got hold of them, used themas javelins, fitting them to their thongs. I confine myself to the following facts,which are known to all. Here were they at theking's gates, and on every side environing them were many hostilecities and tribes of men. These proposals were carried, and that night two hundred slingers wereenrolled, and next day as many as fifty horse and horsemen passedmuster as duly qualified; buff jackets and cuirasses were provided forthem, and a commandant of cavalry appointed to command--Lycius, theson of Polystratus, by name, an Athenian. But the Hellenes, raising the battlehymn, dashed at them at a run, and they did not await them; armed wellenough for mountain warfare, and with a view to sudden attack followedby speedy flight, they were not by any means sufficiently equipped foran engagement at close quarters. ita ut juveni et in tantis admittenda rebus. These, I take it, were the characteristic acts of a man whoseaffections are set on warfare. vi. Todefend ourselves--to ward off that fate--not a hand stirs: no one ispreparing, none cares; but here we lie, as though it were time to restand take our ease. Later it became a province of the Sassanid kingdom, and as such was in 297 A.D. handed over among the regiones transtigritanae to the Roman empire, but in 364 was again ceded to Persia. Then turning to the officers: "Andnow," said he, "let us waste no time; retire at once, I beg you, andchoose leaders where you need them. For the Rhodians could reach further than the Persian 16slingers, or, indeed, than most of the bowmen. As soon as theywere within a short distance, they bade any general or captain of theHellenes who might be there to approach and hear a message from theking. "Let us look another matter in the face. Full view only. The fact was, the approach of theHellenic army had taken them by surprise; if, however, they hadmustered in larger force at this time, the chances are that a largeportion of the army would have been annihilated. The city, modern Izmit, was the capital of ancient Bithynia and one of the foremost towns of early Christianity. In which latter case,I fear, we shall suffer things, which I pray the gods may visit ratherupon those we hate. The main bodywith Cheirisophus made its way down into the plain and encamped in avillage filled with good things of divers sorts. "Even so," repliedTissaphernes, "and if your generals and captains care to come in someopen and public way, I will name to you those who tell me that you areplotting against me and the army under me." But the rest visited the ranks, and wherever ageneral was left, they summoned the general; where he was gone, thelieutenant-general; and where again the captain alone was left, thecaptain. They were, moreover, excellent archers, using bows nearly three cubitslong and arrows more than two cubits. They were Proxenus the Boeotian, Menon theThessalian, Agias the Arcadian, Clearchus the Laconian, and Socratesthe Achaean; while the captains remained at the doors. Xenophon, mounted on his charger, rode beside his men, androused their ardour the while. We haveheard of the Mysians, a people whom we certainly cannot admit to bebetter than ourselves; and yet they inhabit numbers of large andprosperous cities in the king's own country without asking leave. I can take you," he added, "by agood road, practicable even for beasts." Next day they set off without a guide; and the enemy, by keeping up acontinuous battle and occupying in advance every narrow place,obstructed passage after passage. The dearth of cavalry told against the Hellenes; nor were theirinfantry able to overhaul the enemy's infantry, with the long startthey had, and considering the shortness of the race, for it was out ofthe question to pursue them far from the main body of the army. "Heredotus estimates the number of those who fell on the Persian side at 6400 men: the number of Athenian dead is accurately known, since all were collected for the last solemn obsequies--they were 192." You know, I need hardlyremind you, it is not numbers or strength that gives victory in war;but, heaven helping them, to one or other of two combatants it is 42given to dash with stouter hearts to meet the foe, and such onset, innine cases out of ten, those others refuse to meet. When nothing could be got out of him, hewas killed before the eyes of his fellow. what is happening at this instant? The Karduchians or Kurds belong by speech to the Iranian stock, forming in fact their farthest outpost to the west, little given to agriculture, but chiefly to the breeding of cattle. "Now, however, that they have abruptly ended the truce, there is anend also to their own insolence and to our suspicion. To-day you have made 16trial of them, and knowing that, however many times your number, theydo not care to await your onset, what concern have you now to beafraid of them? You see thefaithlessness of Tissaphernes, professing that he was next-doorneighbour to Hellas, and would give a good deal to save us, inconfirmation of which he took an oath to us himself, he gave us thepledge of his right hand, and then, with a lie upon his lips, thissame man turned round and arrested our generals. In other words, though it wasnot his good fortune ever to have followers inspired solely byfriendship or goodwill, yet those who found themselves under him,either by State appointment or through want, or other arch necessity,yielded him implicit obedience. If, on the other hand,we purpose to take our good swords in our hands and to inflictpunishment on them for what they have done, and from this time forwardwill be on terms of downright war with them, then, God helping, wehave many a bright hope of safety." Here the Hellenes recruited themselves, and the sight ofthe plain filled them with joy, for the river was but six or sevenfurlongs distant from the mountains of the Carduchians. 541: "Even as she spake, and Telemachus sneezed loudly, and around the roof rung wondrously. and the speech of Alexander to his rebellious soldiers, and the reply They were armed with longwicker shields and lances. Nor can I see whatbetter force you will find to help you in chastising them than thiswhich marches at my back to-day. As soon as the victims were favourable, all the soldiersbegan singing the battle hymn, and with the notes of the paean mingledthe shouting of the men accompanied by the shriller chant of thewomen, for there were many women[4] in the camp. Andyou should pass a resolution that, in case of insubordination, any one 31who stands by is to aid the officer in chastising the offender. amicorum et vanitatem ementiendae stirpis. [2] These words sound to me like an author's note, parenthetically, and perhaps inadvertently, inserted into the text. v. 1, it is clear that it was composed after the Anabasis. However, when they had issued from the plain and ascended thefirst crest, and were in the act of descending it so as to mount thenext, at this juncture the barbarians came upon them. At the time of his death he was onlythirty years of age. I knowyour anger against them to-day is very great. --Grote, "Hist. The 11cloud which lay upon his brow, at those times lit up with brightness;his face became radiant, and the old sternness was so charged withvigour and knitted strength to meet the foe, that it savoured ofsalvation, not of cruelty. Cheirisophus and theeldest of the generals blamed Xenophon for leaving the main body togive chase and endangering himself thereby, while he could not damagethe enemy one whit the more. 41; Arrian, iii. 114; the allusion is to the invasion of Greeze by Datis and Artaphernes, and to their defeat at Marathon, B.C. . From the highground down the sheer steep they poured a volley of darts,slingstones, and arrows, which they discharged "under the lash[8],"wounding many, until they got the better of the Hellenic light troops,and drove them for shelter behind the heavy infantry, so that this daythat arm was altogether useless, huddling in the mob of sutlers, both 26slingers and archers alike. When discharging the arrow, theydraw the string by getting a purchase with the left foot planted 28forward on the lower end of the bow. [11] Some MSS. The Anabasis (also called The Anabasis of Cyrus, The March Up Country, The March of the Ten Thousand, and The Persian Expedition) is a work by the ancient Greek writer Xenophon.It details the journey of 10,000 Greek mercenaries in the army of Cyrus the Younger as he seeks to overthrow his older brother, the King of Persia Artaxerxes II. … [7] In the passage above I have translated {lokhoi} companies, and, as usual, {lokhagoi} captains. Accordingly, in any strait, this was the man whom the soldierswere eager to obey, and they would have no other in his place. I say, as I 21reasoned thus, there were times when I dreaded the truce more than Inow dread war. It provides up-to-date guidance on literary, historical and cultural aspects of the Anabasis and will help undergraduate students to read Greek better. So wasit when the Persians came, and their attendant hosts[3], with a verygreat armament, to wipe out Athens from the face of the earth--the menof Athens had the heart to withstand them and conquered them. Ifwe take it, the party in command of the road will never be able tostop. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. During this day theycontrived to get along after a fashion, now fighting and now resting.But on the next day they were visited by a great storm, in spite ofwhich they were obliged to continue the march, owing to insufficiencyof provisions. Cf. It was about four furlongs'march to the crossing, and as they moved along the bank, the squadronsof cavalry kept pace with them on the opposite side. - p. 389), of which Arrian's account of the life of him is the best extant,in that it is the most complete and reliable (E. Borza). It was already late afternoon, when they ordered the storming party to 1take a snatch of food and set off; then they bound the guide andhanded him over to them. Grote thinks there were six companies formed on each flank--twelve in all. of Greece," vol. Ihave noted both his ears bored like a Lydian's." After that, the generalsresolved that it would be better to proclaim open war, without truceor herald, as long as they were in the enemy's country; for they usedto come and corrupt the soldiers, and they were even successful withone officer--Nicarchus[1], an Arcadian, who went off in the night withabout twenty men. In this pursuitthe Asiatics lost several of their infantry killed, and of theircavalry as many as eighteen were taken prisoners in the ravine. [3] Opposite Mosul, the north-west portion of the ancient Nineveh, about eighteen miles above Larissa. It was nearly midnight when this took place. Darius and Parysatis had two sons: the elder was named Artaxerxes, and the younger Cyrus.Now, as Darius lay sick and felt that the end of life drew near, he wished both his sons to be with him. Haunted by such thoughts, and with hearts full of despair, but few ofthem tasted food that evening; but few of them kindled even a fire,and many never came into camp at all that night, but took their restwhere each chanced to be. The police at Athens were technically so called, as being composed of Scythian slaves. But when it was late afternoon, the time had come for the enemy to 34withdraw, since the habit of the barbarian was never to encamp withinseven or eight miles of the Hellenic camp. 479, on the same day. BOOK I. Darius and Parysatis had two sons: the elder was named Artaxerxes, and 1. the younger Cyrus. The agreement was, that if they succeeded intaking the summit they were to guard the position that night, and atdaybreak to give a signal by bugle. Curtius, x. It will save time to make theappointments at once, and to settle who leads the square and directsthe vanguard; who will take command of the two flanks, and who of therearguard; so that, when the enemy appears, we shall not need todeliberate, but can at once set in motion the machinery in existence. They were under the command ofStratocles, a Cretan. Accordingly Xenophon at once poured out a libation himself, and badethe two young fellows fill the cup and pray to the gods, who showed tohim this vision and to them a passage, to bring all other blessingsfor them to accomplishment. "Since, however," continued Socrates, "you did soput the question, you should do what the god enjoined." All these goodthings of theirs are now set as prizes for the combatants. It was overthrown by Cyrus in B.C. Surely, just because they are friends ofboth parites, they will try to give us the best advice for you and forus.". This officer rode up to the Helleneswith a body of cavalry, and sending forward an interpreter, statedthat he desired a colloquy with the leaders. The next day was a day of inaction: they halted and took in supplies,as there was much corn in the villages; but on the day following, themarch was continued through the plain (of the Tigris), andTissaphernes still hung on their skirts with his skirmishers. He told them all that had happened. But with the morrow's dawn they espied horsemen at a certain pointacross the river, armed cap-a-pie, as if they meant to dispute thepassage. One of the "However, it is time," he added, "to decide how we are todislodge these fellows from the crest." : Books I-VII / With an English translation by Carleton ... About this Book. Referre in tanto rege piget superbam mutationem vestis et desideratas An orderhad been passed down the lines, what light infantry and what heavyinfantry were to take part in the pursuit; and the cavalry wereinstructed to follow up the pursuit with confidence, as a considerable 3support was in their rear. The full meaning, however, isto be discovered from what happened after the dream. For the momentthen they bivouacked right happily; they had their provisions, theyhad also many memories of the labours that were now passed; seeingthat the last seven days spent in traversing the country of theCarduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost themmore suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of theking and Tissaphernes put together. Then he led on slowly, and the rest of the armyfollowed, wave upon wave, cresting the summit and descending into thevillages which nestled in the hollows and recesses of the hills. The army is unable to cross the Centrites; Xenophon dreams that he is fettered, but the chains drop off his legs and he is able to stride as freely as ever; next morning the two young men come to him with the story how they have found themselves able to walk cross the river instead of having to swim it. Socrates, who had asuspicion that the State of Athens might in some way look askance atmy friendship with Cyrus, whose zealous co-operation with theLacedaemonians against Athens in the war was not forgotten, advisedXenophon to go to Delphi and there to consult the god as to thedesirability of such a journey.