Documents & Reports

Hoddinott P. A new era for intervention development studies. Pilot Feasibility Stud. Six steps in quality intervention development 6SQuID. J Epidemiol Community Health. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new medical research council guidance. Service organization for people with dementia after an injurious fall: challenges and opportunities.

In press. Equipping staff with the skills to maximise recovery of people with dementia after an injurious fall. Aging Ment Health. Is it feasible to deliver a complex intervention to improve the outcome of falls in people with dementia? BMC Med. Realist review - a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions. J Health Serv Res Policy.

Pawson R, Tilley N. Realistic evaluation.

Case study paper in narrative form

London: Sage; Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research. Implement Sci. Development of a key concept in realist evaluation. Proposal: a mixed methods appraisal tool for systematic mixed studies reviews; Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication TIDieR checklist and guide.

Dalkey N. The Delphi method: an experimental study of group opinion. Santa Monica: The Rand Corporation; Dalkey N, Helmer O. Manag Sci. How to use the nominal group and Delphi techniques.

Int J Clin Pharm. Kellogg Foundation. Logic model development guide battle creek. Kellogg Foundation: Michigan; Dwyer JJ, Makin S. Using a program logic model that focuses on performance measurement to develop a program. Can J Public Health. Effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment on mobility. Pain, delirium, and physical function in skilled nursing home patients with dementia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. Curr Med Res Opin. Effective pain management in patients with dementia: benefits beyond pain?

Drugs Aging. Efficacy of treating pain to reduce behavioural disturbances in residents of nursing homes with dementia: cluster randomised clinical trial. Ahn H, Horgas A. The relationship between pain and disruptive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. BMC Geriatr.

Does pain mediate or moderate the effect of cognitive impairment on aggression in nursing home residents with dementia? Asian Nurs Res.

Urban air quality in mega cities: A case study of Delhi City using vulnerability analysis

Efficacy of pain treatment on mood syndrome in patients with dementia: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Tools for assessment of pain in nonverbal older adults with dementia: a state-of-the-science review. J Pain Symptom Manag. Valeriani L. Management of demented patients in emergency department. Int J Alzheimers Dis.

Fall management in alzheimer s related dementia a case study

McIntyre A, Reynolds F. Ageing Soc. Rehabilitation after hip fracture in patients with dementia. A feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of a tailored prevention program to reduce falls in older people with mild dementia.

A home-based, carer-enhanced exercise program improves balance and falls efficacy in community-dwelling older people with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. Rehabilitation of older adults with dementia after causes and effects of deforestation essay fracture.

Multifactorial intervention after a fall in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department: randomised controlled trial. BMJ Clinical research ed. The approach to patients with cognitive impairment and hip fracture: the role of orthogeriatric care.

Rev Clin Gerontol. Aharony L, Sela-Katz P. Depression, falls and cognitive changes among community-dwelling elderly people. Alzheimers Dement. Functional outcome of cognitively impaired hip fracture patients on a geriatric rehabilitation unit.

Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial. Qualitative study on the impact of falling in frail older persons and family caregivers: foundations for an intervention to prevent falls. Nilsson I, Rogmark C. Hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture: good clinical outcome but uneven distribution of occupational therapy.

Disabil Rehabil. Effect of an inpatient geriatric consultation team on functional outcome, mortality, institutionalization, and readmission rate in older adults with hip fracture: a controlled trial. Gonski PN, Moon I. Outcomes of a behavioral unit in an acute aged care service. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Int J Qual Health Care. Contact Us. Aims and Scope. Global Views.

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Practice a relaxation technique. As well as exercising and connecting face-to-face with others, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or yoga. In-home help ranges from a few hours a week of assistance to live-in help, depending on your needs. Getting help with basic tasks like housekeeping, shopping, or other errands can also help you provide more focused care for your loved one.

Adult day care services also provide the chance for you as the caregiver to continue working or attend to other needs. There are some programs that specialize in dementia care. Respite care gives you a block of time as a caregiver to rest, travel, or attend to other things.

Enlist friends and family who live near you to run errands, bring a hot meal, or watch the patient so you can take a well-deserved break. Volunteers or paid help can also provide in-home respite serviceseither occasionally or on a regular basis. Or you can explore out-of-home respite programs such as adult day care centers and nursing homes. Trouble finding words, increased hand gestures, easy confusion, even inappropriate outbursts are all normal.

Keep a sense of structure and familiarity. Try to keep consistent daily times for activities such as waking up, mealtimes, bathing, dressing, receiving visitors, and bedtime. Keeping these things at the same time and place can help orientate the person with dementia. Let your loved one know what to expect even if you are not sure that they completely understand. You can use cues to establish the different times of day. For example, in the morning you can open the curtains to let sunlight in.

For example, they may not be able to tie their shoes, but may be able to put clothes in the hamper. Clipping plants in the yard may not be safe, but they may be able to weed, plant, or water. We aim to bring about a change in modern scholarly communications through the effective use of editorial and publishing polices.

Si Ching LIM. E-mail : bhuvaneswari. The elderly living with dementia are increasing all over the world. Falls and fall related injuries are common among the elderly with dementia.

The elderly with dementia are often more likely to sustain injuries after a fall and are more likely to have recurrent fallers. Once an elderly with dementia is admitted to an acute hospital, they are at risk of falls in the hospital because of delirium, unfamiliar environment, changes in their daily routine and caregivers.

The usual fall prevention strategies recommended are ineffective among the elderly with dementia. According to the Alzheimer Association International, someone in the world develops dementia every 3 seconds. There are currently close to 50 million people living with dementia and this number will reach Falls are common among the elderly, and the fallers often end up with recurrent falls. For the community dwelling elderly with dementia or cognitive impairment, their fall risk is higher compared to their peers with normal cognition, and their risks of sustaining serious injuries after falls are trebled or quadrupled.

The risk factors causing falls are multiple and the more risk factors an individual has, the higher the risk. This paper aims to summarise the factors which cause falls among the elderly with dementia and interventions which are effective in reducing further falls among the elderly fallers with dementia.

The human walking requires an intact motor, sensory, balance, vision and postural control to maintain an upright posture and to move safely through space. In addition, higher cognitive functions like attention, executive function, reaction time, navigation and visuospatial skills are important to navigate the environment and avoid the hazards on the path. People with dementia can have abnormalities of any of the functions mentioned. In addition, the people with dementia are often impulsive and take unnecessary risks due to their lack of insight and poor perception of the environmental hazards.

Polypharmacy, anticholinergic properties, drugs which cause gait instability, sedation, cognitive dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension.

Dementia consists of a host of diseases which lead to pathologies affecting the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and subcortical white matter. Most patients with dementia showed highest level fall management in alzheimer s related dementia a case study disorders, also known as gait apraxia. Gait apraxia is described by Meyer and Barron [] as the inability to use the lower limbs in the act of walking, in the absence of demonstrable sensory or motor deficits.

The clinical features of gait apraxia commonly observed include poorly coordinated limb movements, particularly during shifts in movements like sit to stand, initiate gait from stationery stance or turn corners.

master thesis latex style

Delhi pollution falls by 4% in compared to last year - DIU News

The foot placement may be bizarre or inappropriate [crossing legs when standing or walking, foot placed too far forward].

The overall posture may look bizarre with patient leaning backwards when standing or turning to one side when sitting down. There is often hesitancy on initiation of movement and freezing after stopping.The search showed that the extent of air pollution in Delhi has been described by various researchers from about onwards.

We synthesized the findings and discuss them at length with respect to reported values, their possible interpretations and any limitations of the methodology. The chemical composition of ambient air pollution is also discussed. Home Topic Delhi Air Pollution. Delhi Air Pollution. It is a comprehensive document envisioning higher industrial development in Delhi, with one of its mandates being to develop clean and non-polluting industries and details of steps to be undertaken in this direction have been described.

There are many other organizations self awareness essay work synergistically with the government efforts to reduce air pollution. Government agencies like Factories Inspectorate are also involved in the control of pollution. Since the first act on pollution was instituted, huge progress has been made in terms of human resource, infrastructure development and research capability.

Some studies tried to gather evidence for the effectiveness of control measures by comparing pre- and post-intervention health status. The study conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board demonstrated that spending h in clean indoor environment can reduce health effects of exposure to chronic air pollution. Most of the studies were ecological correlation studies, which are severely limited in their ability to draw causal inferences.

Air pollution and public health: the challenges for Delhi, India.

But, considering the context that demanded the research, these were probably the best available designs to produce preliminary and,sometimes, policy-influencing evidences, as any other methodology would be unethical or operationally impossible.

The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. The benefits of air pollution control measures are showing in the readings. The already existing measures need to be strengthened and magnified to a larger scale. The governmental efforts alone are not enough. Participation of the community is crucial in order to make a palpable effect in the reduction of pollution. The use of public transport needs to be promoted.

The use of Metro rail can be encouraged by provision of an adequate number of feeder buses at Metro stations that ply with the desired frequency. More frequent checking of Pollution Under Control Certificates needs to be undertaken by the civic authorities to ensure that vehicles are emitting gases within permissible norms. People need to be educated to switch-off their vehicles when waiting at traffic intersections.

The ever-increasing influx of migrants can be reduced by developing and creating job opportunities in the peripheral and suburban areas, and thus prevent further congestion of the already-choked capital city of Delhi.

Health, as we all know, is an all-pervasive subject, lying not only within the domains of the health department but with all those involved in human development. Many great scholars from Charaka to Hippocrates have stressed the importance of environment in the health of the individual. Therefore, all those who play a role in modifying the environment in any way, for whatever reason, need to contribute to safeguard people's health by controlling all those factors which affect it.

Source of Support: Nil. Glenn Maxwell announces engagement to Indian-origin girlfriend. City on green path, to get junior bicycle mayors aged 9 to 16 for its 24 wards. Peace central to our ethos, tweets PM on Delhi violence, appeals for calm. Centre, Police draw flak for Northeast Delhi violence: 10 points. SAFAR, a Central government air quality monitoring agency, based its findings on a detailed study of air quality, sources of emissions and meteorological conditions which prevailed in the national capital during this period.

The amount of PM2. SAFAR project director Gufran Beig explained that reduction in emissions from a particular source and reduction in levels of case study about environmental pollution in the philippines are not linearly related or directly proportional. But subsequently, the air cleaned up faster this time due to warmer temperature and dry conditions.

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